Introduction 6 The Opposing Armies 9 The French Army and its Allies 9 Training 15 The Russian Army 17 The Austrian Army 21 The Prussian Army 22 The Swedish Army 23 The Anglo-German Forces 27 The Mecklenburg Contingent 27 The Campaign 37 French Strategy 37 Allied Strategy 40 The Opening Moves 41 The Battle of Grossbeeren, 23 August 1813 41 The Battle of Dresden, 26-27 August 1813 44 The Battle on the Katzbach, 26 August 1813 51 The Battle of Kulm, 29 and 30 August 1813 54 The Battle of Dennewitz, 6 September 1813 58 The Battle of Wartenburg, 3 October 1813 61 The Road to Leipzig 62 The Battle of Leipzig, 14-19 October 1813 64 The Cavalry Battle of Liebertwolkwitz, 14 October 1813 64 The Situation on 16 October 1813 70 The Battle of Wachau and Donnewitz, 16 October 1813 71 The Battle of Lindenau and Möckern, 16 October 1813 74 Results of the Combats of 16 October 1813 77 The Day of Decision, 18 October 1813 81 The Battle for Leipzig, 19 October 1813 85 The Battlefield Today 90 Chronology 91 A Guide to Further Reading 91 Napoleon Bonaparte. His period of rule in Europe in the early 19th century was marked by a series of wars, the scale of which were unprecedented. Not to be forgotten however are the benefits this regime brought, particularly wide-scale reforms of administration throughout Europe. From a painting by David, drawn by Bourgeois and engraved by Bertrand.
The Grande Armee returning from Russia at the beginning of 1813. This contemporary engraving showing the sorry state of the remnants of Napoleon's largest army was pro- duced by Geissler, a resi- dent of Leipzig at that time and an eye-witness. A later painting show- ing an artistically more realistic impression of the Grande Armee of 1812 on its way home. Painting by Arthur Kampf.
Napoleon planning a battle. This painting is an interesting indication of how the Napoleonic command system functioned. He is sitting alone making his plans. Orders are then given to the cleric on his left who transcribes them and passes them on to the aides in the background. The orders are then delivered to the various subcommanders. Such a system worked well with the smaller armies Napoleon commanded in his earlier campaigns but by 1813 it was shown to be outdated. Napoleon's system was simply too inflexible to cope with warfare on such a massive scale. Painting by Armand-Dumaresq.Both sides had now exhausted themselves and needed time to take stock of the situation and bring up fresh forces. At Napoleon's suggestion the protagonists agreed to an armistice which was eventually extended into August. The French, twice victorious on the field of battle, were too weak to make anything of their favourable position. The Allies, exhausted by these two battles and lacking the strength to offer a third, welcomed an opportunity to lick their wounds and recover. Their ability to take on a larger French force and not suffer a decisive defeat gave them the moral victory and increased the chances of Austria joining this coalition, which would shift the weight of numbers from the French side to the Allies.
French Honour Guard. These volunteers came from the wealthier classes of French society. They provided their own uniforms and equipment as well as horses. They formed several mounted units which helped to alleviate the great shortage of cavalry in the French Army. Drawing by Russet.
Marshal Macdonald. This Napoleonic marshal also proved unable to obtain success when given an independent command. Badly mauled by Blücher on the Katzbach, he fought bravely with the rearguard at Leipzig and had to swim the Elster to escape capture. Engraving by Carl Meyer. Marshal Ney. One of the most famous of Napoleon's marshals. A romantic figure remembered best for bravery on the field of battle. His performance in 1813 clearly indicated that an independent command was beyond his capabilities; his corps came close to destruction at Gross- Gorschen, his attempt to outflank the Prusso-Russian army at Bautzen was a flop, he suffered a heavy defeat at Dennewitz. Drawing by Maurin, etched by Delpech. A highly experienced soldier, poor Oudinot is best remembered in this campaign for his defeat at Grossbeeren at the hands of Bülow and his failure to offer Ney sufficient support at Dennewitz. He was twice given the chance by Napoleon to capture Berlin, the capital of Prussia, and failed on both occasions. Painting by Le Fevre.
Table 1. Forces (Field Army) at Napoleon's disposal in mid-August 1813Corps Commander Men Guard 58,191 I Vandamme 33,298 II Victor 25,158 III Ney 40,006 IV Bertrand 23,663 V Lauriston 27,905 VI Marmont 27,754 VII Reynier 21,283 VIII Poniatowski 7,573 XI Macdonald 24,418 XII Oudinot 19,324 XIII Davout 37,514 XIV St.Cyr 26,149 Cavalry I Latour-Maubourg 16,537 II Sebastiani 10,304 III Arrighi 6,000 IV Kellermann 3,923 V l'Heritier 3,000 Girard's Corps Division Dombrowski 4,000 Division Lanusse 11,000 Reserve Artillery and Engineers 8,010 Corps of Observation of Leipzig under Margaron 7,800 Total strength of French Field Army 442,810
Table 2. French Garrisons on the River ElbeHamburg 12,000 Bremen 1,500 Magdeburg 3,250 Wittenberg 2,318 Torgau 2,000 Dresden 5,000 TOTAL: 26,068 Formations in the Second Line Division Lemoine at Minden. Seven battalions, 500 horses, eight cannon 5,400 Augereau's Corps (still being fitted out) 10,000 Milhaud's Cavalry Corps, ditto 2,500 Wrede's Corps (Bavarians) 25,000 TOTAL: 42,900 Garrisons of Fortresses in Poland and Germany: Danzig (Gdansk) 25,000 Zamosc 4,000 Modlin 3,000 Stettin (Szczecin) 8,500 Kustrin (Kostrzyn) 4,000 Glogau (Glogow) 5,500 Erfurt 1,874 Würzburg 2,500 Total: 55,374
Bavarian Hussars 1813. One of the major states of the so-called Confederation of the Rhine. Bavaria remained an ally to Napoleon until only a matter of days before the Battle of Leipzig. Drawing by Anton Hoffmann. French soldiers billeted in Germany. To many victims of the Napoleonic Wars, this is how the period of French occupation was often perceived - arrogant foreigners lording it up and plundering wherever they went. Painting by Henseler.
General Vandamme. The most unfortunate French commander of the campaign. Entrusted with the pursuit of the Army of Bohemia after Dresden, he had the opportunity of deciding the campaign in his master's favour. However, more by accident than design, the pursuer was surrounded and his command wiped out. A brave man but the one who turned the victory at Dresden into a major defeat for Napoleon, Painting by Rouillard. General Bertrand commanded IV Corps in the Grande Armee in this campaign. Always loyal to Napoleon, his performance in 1813 was satisfactory, but then he was never trusted with an independent command. He was defeated by Yorck at Wartenburg after a determined fight. Painting by Delaroche.
Tsar Alexander of Russia. Generally regarded as a benevolent and liberal ruler, Alexander spent the campaign of autumn 1813 at the headquarters of the Army of Bohemia. His skill as a soldier tends not to he highly regarded, but it should not be forgotten that his intervention at a critical moment in the battle on l6 October stabilized the situation for the Allies. Etching by Katzler.Most battalions were brought up to 500 to 600 men, but many regiments could muster only one battalion. The vast losses sustained in 1812 were replaced by calling up men of the older classes. They marched from their depots in Russia to the front in Germany thereby accustoming themselves to life in the open and the hardships facing a soldier. They were well clothed and equipped but lacked the tactical subtleties of western armies. Only the Jäger (light) regiments showed any expertise in skirmish tactics.
The popular view of Cossacks. At times, they plundered friend and foe alike with no regard for their victims. At other times, they overwhelmed their hosts with their friendliness and honesty. Their name alone inspired fear in the hearts of the French who had suffered terribly at their hands during the retreat from Moscow. Of limited military value, their effect was largely psychological. Hetman Platow and his Cossacks. This is a most interesting painting that shows details of the arms and equipment carried by the Cossacks. Schadow/Jugelit is known that each served twelve pieces. A so-called position battery consisted of four 20pdr howitzers, four medium and four light 12pdr cannon. A light battery consisted of four 12pdr howitzers and eight 6pdr cannon. A horse battery consisted of six 12pdr howitzers and six 6pdr cannon.
Russian soldiers. Left to right: Cossack, Kalmuck and Militiaman. Contemporary drawing by Schadow, etched by Jugel. A Bashkir. From this picture, it is clear why these astatic tribesmen inspired fear in both friend and foe. Schadow/Jugel. General Count Wittgenstein. Replacing Kutusov as senior Russian commander in the of spring 1813, Wittgenstein was a mere 44 years old. He commanded a corps during the autumn, fighting at Dresden and Leipzig. Painting by Dahling.
Table 3. Organization of the Russian Field ArmyCorps Men In Silesia Langeron 34,551 Sacken 18,353 Wittgenstein 34,926 St. Priest 13,586 Guards & Reserves 44,347 In Brandenburg Corps Wittgenstein. Woronzow and Detachment Tschernitschew 29,357 With III Corps 1,160 With IV Corps (Prussians) 318 In Mecklenburg attached to Wallmoden's Corps Tettenborn 1,495 Russo-German Legion 4,475 With Dornberg's Cavalry 1,192 Russo-German Artillery 363 Total Field Army 84,123 men In Reserve Bennigsen's Reserve Army near Warsaw 59,000 Roth's Corps blockading Zamosc 15,000 Kleinmichel's Corps blockading Modlin 9,000 Before Danzig under Duke Alexander of Württemberg 29,100 TOTAL RUSSIAN RESERVES AND BLOCKADING TROOPS: 112,100 Count Hieronymus Colloredo. Austrian Corps commander with Army of Bohemia. His corps was in the thick of the fighting at Dresden, Kulm and Leipzig. Colloredo continued to serve his Emperor after Leipzig, advancing with his troops into France in 1814. Painting by P. Krafft.
Table 4. Austrian Army, August 1813With the Army of Bohemia (or Main Army) 107 battalions, 117 squadrons, 290 guns, 127,345 men. Between the Ens and Traun under Prince of Reuss: 30,079 The Army of Inner Austria under Hiller: 36,557 TOTAL STRENGTH OF THE FIELD ARMY: 193,981 Fortress Garrisons: Prague 7,320 Koniggratz (Hradec Kralove) 9,424 Josefstadt (Josefov) 10,800 TOTAL STRENGTH OF FORTRESS GARRISONS 27,544
Joseph Count Radetzky. Chief-of-Staff of the army of Bohemia, a very capable officer who helped form the successful Allied strategy of avoiding a battle with Napoleon in person until all forces had been concentrated. Engraving by H. Mansfeld.In September, the army was reorganized into corps after the fashion of its allies. Two-thirds of this army consisted of recruits with three months' service. They were poorly trained, the more so because of a shortage of junior officers. Sufficient firearms were available but there was a shortage of greatcoats and footwear which became particularly noticeable during the rains of that August.
Table 5. Prussian ArmyIn Silesia 7,091 Royal Guard 38,484 I Corps Yorck 37,816 II Corps Kleist In Brandenburg III Corps Bülow 41,135 IV Corps Tauentzien 33,170 In Mecklenburg attached to Wallmoden's Corps Free Corps Lutzow, Reiche and Schill 4,068 Total Field Army 161,764 Blockading Corps Before Kustrin under Hinrichs 7,122 Before Stettin under Ploetz 10,548 Besieging Danzig under Count Dohna 8,000 Besieging Glogau 5,000 Total of Blockading Corps: 30,670 Total of Prussian forces mobilized: 192,434
King Frederick William III of Prussia. Regarded by some as a weak and vacillating monarch, his main role in this campaign was to persuade Tsar Alexander and Emperor Francis to stand and fight at Dresden despite Napoleon's presence. Although not the right decision, it nevertheless shows a determined streak in his character. Painting by Franz Kruger. General von Bülow. Prussian corps commander under Crown Prince of Sweden with the Army of the North. Bülow earned his reputation for his role in the Battles of Grossbeeren and Dennewitz. On these two occasions, Bülow prevented Berlin falling into French hands, inflicting, heavy defeats on Oudinot and Ney. Engraving by Hullmann
Gehhard Leberecht von Blücher. Commander of the Army of Silesia and no doubt the most famous Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars. Blücher had a passionate hatred of Napoleonic Imperialism. This wily warhorse steered clear of Napoleon in the early part of the campaign, defeated Macdonald on the Katzbach and Bertrand at Wartenburg before joining forces with the Crown Prince of Sweden and inarching on Leipzig. Painting by P.E. Gebauer. General von Kleist. Commander of the Prussian corps attached to the Army of Bohemia. He is best known for his role in the Battle of Kulm which resulted in the destruction of Vandamme's Corps. Kleist was able to move on the rear of the French, thereby surrounding them. The Battle of Kulm more than cancelled out the gains made by Napoleon at Dresden a few days earlier. Gneisenau. With Scharnhorst, a leading reformer of the Prussian Army, Gneisenau spent this campaign in the role of chief-of-staff to Blücher, the beginning of a team which pressed on to Leipzig from Silesia, crossed the Rhine in the depths of a hostile winter to carry the war deep into France, capturing Paris in 1814 and which then staged a 'repeat performance at Waterloo in 1815. The staff work for which Gneisenau was famous became the basis for all modern general staffs and showed that the lessons of the Napoleonic Wars had been analysed and learned, at least in Prussia. Scharnhorst. A German patriot and Prussian general whose military reforms helped shape the face of modern Europe. Together with Gneisenau and others, he founded the general staff system on which all modern military command systems are based. Mortally wounded at Gross- Gorschen, he never lived to see the final results of his labours. Painting by Gebauer. Charles John, Crown Prince of Sweden. Commander of the Army of the North and also a Marshal of Napoleon's, the then Jean Bernadotte accepted an offer of succession to the Swedish throne on the death of its childless holder. Bernadotte was always a controversial character who certainly knew how to look after his own interests best. Unpopular among his peers, regarded as a traitor by the French and an upstart by the Prussians, his successors still hold the crown of Sweden, the only surviving family to have received royal status during the Napoleonic Wars.
Table 6. Swedish Forces in GermanyIn Brandenburg Corps Stedingk 23,449 In Mecklenburg as part of Wallmoden's Corps Brigade Bergenstrohla 3,814 The Baltic port of Stralsund was garrisoned with 2,452 men. Silesian Militia, August 1813, by E. Rabe, produced early in the 19th century. Note the anachronism - the models are carrying the 1839 pattern percussion musket which was, however, apart from the lock, identical with the flintlock used in the Napoleonic Wars.
Britain deployed or subsidised in northern Germany the following troops: King's German Legion 4,506 With Cavalry Division Dornberg 1,322 With Wallmoden's Reserve Artillery 412 Hanseatic Legion 3,043The only ethnic British with the above were a hussar regiment of five squadrons, one rocket and two horse batteries. There were a further six battalions of British in the garrison of Stralsund. These troops were still in the process of formation and were lacking equipment.
Table 7. Total Allied Forces AvailableRussians 184,123 Prussians 161,764 Austrians 127,345 Swedes 23,449 Anglo-Germans 9,283 Mecklenburgers 6,149 Total 512,113 Including the troops in reserve, the Allies had about 860,000 men at their disposal.
FRENCH ARMY NAPOLEON OLD GUARD Friant BRIGADE CURIAL: 1st Chasseur Regt (2); 2nd Chass Regt (2); BRIGADE MICHEL: 1st Grenadier Regt (2); 2nd Gren Regt (2); Velites of Turin (1):Velites of Florence (1); 1 foot battery YOUNG GUARD 1st Division Dumoustier BRIGADE ROUSSEAU: Fusilier-Chasseurs (2); Fusilier-Grenadiers (2) BRIGADE TINDAU: 1st Voltigeur Regt (2); 2nd Volt Regt (2) BRIGADE COULOUMY: 3rd Volt Regt (2); 6th Volt Regt (2); 7th Volt Regt (2): 3 foot batteries; 1 coy engineers 2nd Division Barrois BRIGADE ROTHEMBOURG: 1st Tirailleur Regt (2); 2nd Tir Regt (2) BRIGADE PORET (?): 3rd Tir Regt (2): 6th Tir Regt (2); 7th Tir Regt (2) BRIGADE BOYELDIEU: Flanqueur-Chasseur Regt (2); Flanqueur-Grenadier Regt (2); 3 foot batteries; 1 coy engineers 3rd Division Decouz BRIGADE GROS: 4th Voltigeur Regt (2); 5th Volt Regt (2) BRIGADE COMBELLE: 8th Volt Regt (2); 9th Volt Regt (2): 10th Volt Regt (2) BRIGADE DULONG: 11th Volt Regt (2); 12th Volt Regt (2); 3 foot batteries 4th Division Roguet BRIGADE BOYER DE REBEVAL: 4th Tirailleur Regt (2); 5th Tir Regt (2) BRIGADE MARQUET: 8th Tir Regt (2); 9th Tir Regt (2); 10th Tir Regt (2) BRIGADE PELET: 11th Tir Regt (2); 12th Tir Regt (2); 3 foot batteries Guard Cavalry Nansouty 1st (Polish) Lancers (7); 2nd (Polish) Lancers (10); Berg Chevauxlegers (6); Chasseurs a Cheval (10); Dragoons (6); Grenadiers a Cheval (6); Gendarmes d'Elite (2); 4 regts Gardes d'Honneur (12); 4 horse batteries. Reserve Artillery: 5 foot batteries of the Old Guard; 4 foot batteries of the Young Guard; 2 horse batteries; 1 Berg battery; 1 coy pontonniers; 1 coy Guard engineers; 3 coys sailors. TOTAL IMPERIAL GUARD: 30,000 infantry, 8.000 cavalry, 202 guns. I CORPS formed the garrison of Dresden and did not participate in the Battle of Leipzig; its order of battle is not included here. II CORPS Victor 4th Division Du Breton BRIGADE FERRIERE: 24th Light Regt(3); 19th Line Regt (3) BRIGADE BRUN: 37th Line Regt (3); S6th Line Regt (3); 2 divisional batteries (16) 5th Division Dufours BRIGADE D'ETSKO: 26th Light Regt (3); 93rd Line Regt (3) Brigade ?: 46th Line Regt (I); 72nd Line Regt (I); 1 divisional battery (8) 6th Division Vial BRIGADE VALORY: 11th Light Regt (2); 2nd Line Regt (3) BRIGADE BRONIKOWSKY: 4th Line Regt (3): 18th Line Regt (3); 2 divisional batteries (16). Reserve Artillery: 1 horse, 2 foot batteries; 3 coys engineers. II Corps total: 17.241 men, 32 batteries, 55 guns. III CORPS Souham 8th Division Brayer (French) BRIGADE BARON ESTEVE: 6th Light Regt (2); 16th Light Regt (2); 28th Light Regt (2); 40th Line Regt (2) BRIGADE CHARRIERE: 59th Line Regt (2); 69th Line Regt (2); 22nd Light Regt (3); 2 batteries (12) 9th Division Delmas (French) BRIGADE ANTHING: 2nd Provisional Regt(4); 43rd Line Regt (2); 136th Line Regt (3) BRIGADE VERGEZ DES BAREAUX: 138th Line Regt (3); 145th Line Regt (3); 2 batteries (13) 11th Division Ricard (French) BRIGADE VAN DEDEM VAN DEGELDER: 9th Light Regt (3); 50th Line Regt (3); 65th Line Regt (2) BRIGADE DUMOULIN: 142nd Line Regt (3); 144th Line Regt (3); 2 batteries (12) 23RD LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE BARON BEURMANN (mixed nationalities): 10th Hussar Regt (French) (6); 1st Dragoon Regt (Baden) (5). Reserve Artillery: 2 12pdr batteries (16). (Two 6pdrs arrived in mid September but it is not known to which formation they were attached.) III CORPS TOTAL: 42 battalions 13.034 men. 11 squadrons 1,065 men. 61 guns. IV CORPS Bertrand 12th Division Morand (French) BRIGADE DE BELAIR: 8th Light Regt (4); 23rd Line Regt (4) BRIGADE BARON HULOT: 23rd Line Regt (3); 137th Line Regt (2); Provisional Croatian Regt (2): 2 divisional batteries (12) 5th Division Fontanelli (Italians) BRIGADE SANT' ANREA: 1st Light Regt (2); 6th Line Regt (I) BRIGADE MORONI: Milan Guard (I); 7th Line Regt (I): 1st Line Regt (I); 4th Line Regt (I); 1 divisional battery (6)38th Division Franquemont (Württembergers) 1ST BRIGADE STOCKMAYER: 1st Combined Bn (Inf Regt No.1); 4th Comb Bn (both light inf regts) 2ND BRIGADE DORING: 2nd Comb Bn (Inf Regt No. 4); 3rd Comb Bn (Inf Regt No. 6); 1 foot battery (4). This division had been reduced to three battalions by mid October, but it is not known which battalion was disbanded. Cavalry Division Briche 24TH LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE JETT (Württembergers): Chevauleger Regt Prince Adam No. 1 (1); Jäger Regt Duke Louis No. 3 (1) Cavalry Division Beaumont 29TH LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE WOLF (Germans): Hessian Chevauleger Regt (1); Westphalian Guard Chevauleger Regt (1). Reserve Artillery: 1 battery (French) (8). IV CORPS TOTAL: 26 battalions 6,124 men, 4 squadrons 349 men, 26 guns. V CORPS Lauriston 10th Division Albert BRIGADE BACHELET: 4th Provisional Light Regt (2); 139th Line Regt (3) BRIGADE BERTRAND: 140th Line Regt (3); 141st Line Regt (3): 2 divisional batteries (10) 16th Division Maison BRIGADE MONTENELLE: 151st Line Regt (3); 152nd Line Regt (3) BRIGADE MONTESQUIEU: 153rd Line Regt (3); 154th Line Regt (3); 1 horse, 2 foot batteries (10) 19th Division Rochambeau BRIGADE HARLET: 135th Line Regt (3); 149th Line Regt (3) BRIGADE LAFITTE: 150th Line Regt (3); 155th Line Regt (3); 2 divisional batteries (10) 6TH LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE DERNONCOURT: 2nd Chasseur Regt (3); 3rd Chass Regt (2): 6th Chass Regt (3). Reserve Artillery: 3 foot batteries (15); 1 horse battery (8); 3 coys engineers. V CORPS TOTAL: 35 battalions 14,892 men, 8 squadrons 3,056 men, 53 guns.
28VI CORPS Marmont 20th Division Compans (French) BRIGADE PELLEPORT: 32nd Light Regt (2); 1st Naval Regt (5) BRIGADE JOUBERT: 3rd Naval Regt (3); 20th Provisional Regt (2); 25th Prov Regt (2); 2 divisional batteries (16) 21st Division Lagrange (French) BRIGADE JAMIN: 37th Light Regt (4); Regt Joseph Napoleon (Spanish) (1); 4th Naval Regt (3) BRIGADE BUQUET: 2nd Naval Regt (6); 2 divisional batteries (16) 22nd Division Friedrichs (French) BRIGADE VAN COEHORN: 23rd Light Regt (2); 11th Provisional Regt (2); 13th Prov Regt (2); 15th Line Regt (2) BRIGADE DE CHOISY: 16th Prov Regt (2); 70th Line Regt (2); 121st Line Regt (2); 2 divisional batteries (16) 25TH LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE (Württembergers): Life Chevauleger Regt No. 2 (4): King's Jäger Regt No. 4 (4) Horse Battery Fleschmann (6). Reserve Artillery: 2 horse batteries (12); 2 I2pdr batteries (16); 4 coys engineers. VI CORPS TOTAL: 42 battalions 15,342 men, 8 squadrons 935 men, 82 guns. VII CORPS Reynier 13th Division Guillemot (French) BRIGADE GRUYER: 1st Light Regt (4); 18th Light Regt (2); 7th Line Regt (1); 42nd Line Regt (1); 156th Line Regt (2) BRIGADE LEJEUNE: Illyrian Regt (1); 52nd Line Regt (1); 67th Line Regt (1); 101st Line Regt (2); 1 divisional battery (6) 24th Division Von Zeschau (Saxons) 1ST BRIGADE von Brause: Light Inf Regt Lecoq (1); Inf Regt Rechten (1); 1st Grenadier Bn (1); Inf Regt Prince Frederick (1); Inf Regt Steindel (1): Field Jäger Coy 2ND BRIGADE Von Ryssel: 2nd Grenadier Bn (1);Light lnf Regt Sahr (1); Inf Regt Niesemeuschel (1); Inf Regt Prince Anthony (1); Inf Regt Low (1) ARTILLERY BRIGADE von Roth: 1st Foot Battery (8); 2nd Foot Battery (8) 32nd Division Durutte (French) BRIGADE DEVAUX: 35th Light Regt (1); 131st Line Regt (1); 132nd Line Regt (1) BRIGADE JARRY: 36th Light Regt (1); 133rd Line Regt (1); Wurzburg Regt (1); 1 divisional battery (6) 26th Light Cavalry Division Lirdenau (Saxons) Hussar Regt (8); Uhlan Regt Prince Clemence (5); Horse Battery Probsthain (4). Reserve Artillery: Horse Battery (Saxons) (4); Reserve Battery (Saxons) (6); Reserve Battery (French) (6). VII CORPS TOTAL: 28+ battalions 11,587 men, 13 squadrons 684 men, 48 guns. VIII CORPS Prince Poniatowski (Polish) 26th Division Kaminiecki BRIGADE LINAWSKI: 1st Inf Regt (2); 16th Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE MALACHOWSKI: 8th Inf Regt (2); 15th Inf Regt (2); 3 foot batteries (?) 27th Division Dombrowski BRIGADE 7OTOWSKI (attached to Ney's command); BRIGADE GRABOWSKI: 12th Inf Regt (2); 1st Combined Regt of Vistula Legion (2); 1 1/2 foot batteries (?) 27th Light CAVALRY BRIGADE UMINSKI: 14th Cuirassier Regt (2); 1st Comb Vanguard (4). Reserve Artillery: 2 foot batteries (?); 1 coy engineers. VIII CORPS TOTAL 12 battalions, 6 squadrons approx. 6,000 men, 44 (?) guns. IX CORPS Augereau 51st Division ? 32nd Provisional Regt (2); 63rd Line Regt (I) BRIGADE AYMARD: 34th Prov Regt (2); 35th Prov Regt (2); 1 battery (?) 2nd Division Semele BRIGADE BAGNERIS: 37th Provisional Regt (2); 39th Line Regt (1) BRIGADE GODARD: 121st Line Regt (1); 122nd Line Regt (1); 86th Line Regt (1); 1 battery (?) IX CORPS TOTAL: 13 battalions 8,647 men, 14 guns. XI CORPS Macdonald 31st Division Ledru des Essart (mixed nationalities) BRIGADE FRESSINET (French): 5th Line Regt (2); 11th Line Regt (2); 20th Line Regt (I); 102nd Line Regt (1) BRIGADE D'HENIN (Westphalians): 4th Light Bn (1); 8th Une Regt (2) BRIGADE MACDONALD DE KLOR RENALD (Neapolitans): 4th Light Regt (2); Elite Regt (I); 1 foot battery (French) (8); 2 foot batteries (Westphalians) (12) 35th Division Gerard BRIGADE SENECAL (French): 6th Line Regt (3); 112th Line Regt (4) BRIGADE ZUCCHI (Italians): 2nd Light Regt (2); 5th Line Regt (4); 1 foot battery (Italians) (8); 1 horse battery (Italians) (6) 36th Division Charpentier (French) BRIGADE BARON SIMMER: 22nd Light Regt (4); 10th Une Regt (2) BRIGADE MEUNIER: 3rd Light Regt (2); 14th Light Regt (3); 2 divisional batteries (16) 39th Division Marchand (Germans) BRIGADE VON STOCKHORN (Badeners): 1st Inf Regt (2); 3rd Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE PRINCE EMIL OF HESSE (Hessians): Fusilier Guards (I); 2nd Line Regt (2); Guard (2); 1 battery (Badeners) (4); 1 battery (Hessians) (8) 28 LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE (mixed): 4th Chasseur Regt (Italian) (2); 2nd Chass Regt (Neapolitan) (4); Wurzburg Chevauleger (1) Reserve Artillery (French): 1 horse battery (6); 2 12pdr batteries (16); 1 or 2 engineer coys (French); 1 engineer coy (Italian). XI CORPS TOTAL: 45 battalions 19,405 men, 7 squadrons 496 men, 52 guns. This corps lost 16 guns on the Katzbach but it is not known from which batteries, so it has not been possible to make the correct deduction from individual batteries. Division Dombrowski (Polish) INFANTRY BRIGADE ZOTOWSKI: 2nd Inf Regt (2); 4th Inf Regt (2) CAVALRY BRIGADE KRUKOWIECKI: 2nd Lancer Regt (4); 4th Lancer Regt (4); 1 horse artillery battery (4); 1 foot artillery battery (4); 1 coy engineers. TOTAL 4 battalions. 8 squadrons 3,250 men, 8 guns. Division Margaron 2nd Baden Line Regt (2); Baden Light Bn (1); 35th French Light Regt (1); 132nd Fr Light Regt (1); 96th Fr Light Regt (1); 103rd Fr Light Regt (1). Total: 7 battalions 4,670 men. 29 Column Lefol 7,116 infantry, 2,733 cavalry, 6 guns. I CAVALRY CORPS Latour-Maubourg 1st Light Cavalry Division Berckheim 1ST BRIGADE PIRE: 6th Hussar Regt (2): 7th Huss Regt (3); 8th Huss Regt (3) 2ND BRIGADE MONTMARIE: 16th Chasseur Regt (2); 1st Chevauleger Regt (2); 3rd Chevleg Regt (2) 3RD BRIGADE PIQUET: 5th Chevleg Regt (2); 8th Chevleg Regt (2); 1st King's Chasseurs (Italians) (4); 1 horse battery (French) (?) 3rd Light Cavalry Division Chastel 4TH BRIGADE VALLIN: 8th Chasseur Regt (2); 9th Chass Regt (2); 25th Chassr Regt (2) 5TH BRIGADE VIAL: 1st Chass Regt (3); 19th Chass Regt (3); 1 horse battery (French) 1st Heavy Cavalry Division Bordesoulle 1ST BRIGADE SOPRANSI: 2nd Cuirassier Regt (2); 3rd Cuir Regt (2): 6th Cuir Regt (2) 2ND BRIGADE BESSIERES: 9th Cuir Regt (3); 11th Cuir Regt(3); 12th Cuir Regt (2) 3RD BRIGADE LESSING (Saxons): Guard Cuir (4); Zastrow Cuir (4) 3rd Heavy Cavalry Division Doumerc 1ST BRIGADE D'AUDENARDE: 4th Cuirassier Regt (3); 7th Cuir Regt (3); 14th Cuir Regt (2); Italian Dragoons (4) 2ND BRIGADE REISET: 7th Dragoner Regt (2); 23rd Drag Regt (3); 28th Drag Regt (2): 30th Drag Regt (2); 1 horse battery (Italian). Reserve Artillery: 2 horse batteries. I CAVALRY CORPS TOTAL: 78 squadrons 6,480 men, 27 guns. This number of squadrons is as at campaign beginning: it is likely to have decreased by October. II CAVALRY CORPS Sebastiani 2nd Light Cavalry Division Roussel d'Hurbal 7TH BRIGADE GERARD: 11th Chasseur Regt (3); 12th Chass Regt (3); 5th Hussar Regt (3) 8TH BRIGADE DOMMANGET: 9th Huss Regt (4): 2nd Chevauleger Regt (3): 4th Chevleg Regt (3) 4th Light Cavalry Division Exelmans 9TH BRIGADE Maurin: 6th Chevauleger Regt (2); 4th Chasseur Regt (2); 7th Chass Regt (3) 10TH BRIGADE Wathiez: 20th Chass Regt (4); 23rd Chass Regt (4); 24th Chass Regt (3); 11th Hussar Regt (2) 2nd Heavy Cavalry Division Saint-Germain 1ST BRIGADE Davrange d'Haugeranville: 1st Carabineer Regt (2); 2nd Carab Regt (2); 1st Cuirassier Regt (2) 2ND BRIGADE Thiry: 5th Cuir Regt (3); 8th Cuir Regt (2); 10th Cuir Reg: (2). II CAVALRY CORPS TOTAL: 52 squadrons 5,679 men, 12 guns. III CAVALRY CORPS Arrighi 4th Heavy Cavalry Division Defrance 1ST BRIGADE Avice: 4th Dragoon Regt (1); 5th Drag Regt (1); 12th Drag Regt (1); 14th Drag Regt (1); 24th Drag Regt (1) 2ND BRIGADE Quinette: 16th Drag Regt (1): 17th Drag Regt (1): 21st Drag Regt (1): 26th Drag Regt (1); 27th Drag Regt (1); 13th Cuirassier Regt (1) 5th Light Cavalry Division Lorge 12TH LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE Jaquinot: 5th Chasseur Regt (2): 10th Chass Regt (2): 13th Chass Regt (2) 13TH LIGHT CAVALRY BRIGADE Merlin: 15th Chass Regt (1): 21st Chass Regt (1); 22nd Chass Regt (I); 1 horse battery (6) III CAVALRY CORPS TOTAL 27 squadrons 4,000 men, 6 guns. V CAVALRY CORPS Pajol 5th Heavy Cavalry Division I'Heritier BRIGADE QUCUNOT: 2nd Dragoon Regt (3); 6th Drag Regt (4) BRIGADE COLLAERT: 11th Drag Regt (4); 13th Drag Regt (2): 15th Drag Regt(3) 6th Heavy Cavalry Division Milhaud BRIGADE LAMOTTE: 18th Dragoon Regt (2); 19th Drag Regt (2); 20th Drag Regt (3) BRIGADE MONTLEGIER: 22nd Drag Regt (3); 25th Drag Regt (4) 9th Light Cavalry Division Subervie BRIGADE KLICKY: 3rd Hussar Regt (3); 27th Huss Regt (4) BRIGADE VIAL 14th Chasseur Regt (3); 26th Chass Regt (3|; 13th Huss Regt (4); 1 horse battery (6). V CAVALRY CORPS TOTAL:47 squadrons approx. 5,000 men, 6 guns. The loneliness of command. Napoleon dictating orders to his clerk while the clock ticks away in the comer. A rather symbolic view of Napoleon's position and another illustration of the major flaw in his system of command. Painting by J. I. Meunier.
ORDER OF BATTLE: ALLIED ARMY, OCTOBER 1813The figure in parentheses after a unit's name indicates the number of battalions, squadrons or guns in that formation. ARMY OF BOHEMIA Commander Charles, Prince of Schwarzenberg AUSTRIANS 1st Light Division Maurice, Prince of Liechtenstein BRIGADE PRINCE OF HESSEN-HOMBURG: Jäger Bn No. 1 (1); Jäger Bn No. 2 (1); Emperor's Chevauxlegers (6); 1 6pdr horse battery (6); BRIGADE SCHEITHER: 1 Bn Brooder Border Troops (1); Jäger Bn No. 7(1); Levenehr Dragoons (4); Vincent Chevauxlegers (6): 1 6pdr horse battery (6). 1st Light Division total: 4 battalions 16 squadrons 4,98 8 men, 12 guns. 2nd Light Division Bubra BRIGADE ZECHMEISTER: Peterwardein Border Troops (1); Jäger Bn No. 6 (1); Liechtenstein Hussars (6); 1 6pdr horse battery (6) BRIGADE WIEIAND: Militia (4); Blankenstein Hussars (6); 13pdr battery (6) Brigade Neiperg: Jäger Bn No. 5(1); Emperor's Hussars (6); 1 6pdr horse battery (6). 2nd Light Division total: 7 battalions, 18 squadrons 9,993 men, 18 guns. IV CORPS Klenau Division Mohr BRIGADE PAUMGARTEN: 1st Walachia Border Regt (1); Walachian-lllyrian Border Regt (2); Hohenzollern Chevauxlegers (6); Palatinal Hussars (6); Archduke Ferdinand's Hussars (6); 1 6pdr horse battery (6) Division Prince Hohenlohe BRIGADE SCHAFER: Josef Colloredo Inf Regt (2): Zach Inf Regt (3) BRIGADE SPLENYI: Württemberg Inf Regt (3); Lindenau Inf Regt (3); 2 6pdr batteries (16) Division Mayer BRIGADE ABELE: Alois Lichtenstein Inf Regt (3); Koburg Inf Regt (3) BRIGADE BEST: Archduke Charles Inf Regt (2); Kerpen Inf Regt (2) Division Desfours Emperor's Cuirassiers (6); Oreilly Chevauxlegers (6); 2 6pdr batteries ( 16). Reserve Artillery: 16pdr, 2 12pdr batteries (18). IV Corps total: 24 battalions, 30 squadrons, 24,354 men, 56 guns. III CORPS Gyulai Division Crenneville BRIGADE HAECHT: Warasdine Crusaders Border Regt (1); Warasdine St. George's Border Regt (1); Klenau Chevauxlegers (7); Rosenberg Chevleg (6); 1 6pdr battery (8) Division Murray BRIGADE SALINS Archduke Ludwig Inf Regt (3): Wurzburg Inf Regt (2) Brigade Weigel: Mariassy Inf Regt (2); Ign. Gyulai Inf Regt (2): 2 6pdr batteries (16) Division Prince of Hessen-Homburg BRIGADE CSOLICH: Kotulinsky Inf Regt (3); Emperor's Inf Regt (2) Brigade Grimmer Kolowrat Inf Regt (2); Frelich Inf Regt (2); 16pdr battery (8). Reserve Artillery: 1 12pdr, 2 6pdr batteries (18). III Corps total: 20 battalions, 13 squadrons 18.698 men. 50 guns. II CORPS Merveldt Division Lederer BRIGADE SORBENBURG (Prince of Saxe-Coburg): Gradiskan Border Regt (1); Kienmayer Hussars (6): Archduke John's Dragoons (4) BRIGADE LONGUEVIILE: Strauch Inf Regt (2); Bellegarde Inf Regt (2): 2 6pdr batteries (16) Division Alois, Prince of Liechtenstein BRIGADE KLOPPSTEIN: Kaunitz Inf Regt (2): Wenzel Colloredo Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE MECZERY: Reuss-Greitz Inf Regt (2); Vogelsang Inf Regt (3): Militia (1); 2 6pdr batteries (16). Reserve Artillery: 1 12pdr, 2 6pdr batteries (18). II Corps total: 15 battalions, 10 squadrons 12,129 men, 50 guns. I CORPS Colloredo Division Hardegg BRIGADE RAIGECOURT: German Banat Border Regt (2); Hessen-Homburg Hussars (6); Riesch Dragoons (6) Division Wimpffen BRIGADE GIFFING: Froon Inf Regt (2 +1 militia); De Vaux Inf Regt (2 + 1 militia) BRIGADE CZERWENICA: Argenteau Inf Regt (2 + 1 militia); Erbach Inf Regt (1 + 1 militia): 2 6pdr batteries (16) Division Greth BRIGADE WURMB: De Ligne Inf Regt (3); Czartoryski Inf Regt (3); BRIGADE Quosdanovich: Albert Gyulai Inf Regt (2); Reuss-Plauen Inf Regt (2); 2 6pdr batteries (16). Reserve Artillery: 1 12pdr. 2 6pdr batteries (18). I Corps total: 23 battalions, 12 squadrons 20,735 men, 50 guns. ARMY RESERVE Hereditary Prince of Hessen-Homburg Division Weissenwolf BRIGADE FURSTENWARTHER: Grenadier Bns Czarnotzay; Obermayer; Berger OKLOPESTA BRIGADE vacant: Grenadier Bns Habinay; Portner; Fischer; Rueber: 2 6pdr batteries (16) Division Bianchi: BRIGADE BECK: Colloredo-Mannsfeld Inf Regt (2); Hiller Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE HAUGWITZ: Hessen-Homburg Inf Regt (2); Simbschen Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE QUAUENBERG: Eszterhàzy Inf Regt (2); Davidovich Inf Regt (2); 3 6pdr batteries (24) Division Nostitz (under Freiherr von Klebelsberg) BRIGADE ROTHKIRCH: Archduke Francis Cuirassier Regt (4); Crown Prince Ferdinand Cuir Regt (4) BRIGADE AUCRSPERG: Hohenzollern Cuir Regt (6); Sommariva Cuir Regt (6) (under Count Gvalart) BRIGADE KUTTALEK: Duke Albert of Saxony Cuirassier Regt (4); Lothringen Cuir Regt (4) ARMY RESERVE TOTAL: 20 battalions, 28 squadrons 19.771 men. 40 guns. Army Artillery Reserve Reisner 2 3pdr, 2 6pdr, 8 12pdr. 2 18pdr batteries: 4 6pdr horse batteries, total 18 batteries, 112 guns. TOTAL AUSTRIAN TROOPS THE ARMY OF BOHEMIA: 113 battalions, 127 squadrons 110,569 men, 388 guns. RUSSIANS AND PRUSSIANS Commander Count Barclay de Tolly COMBINED CAVALRY CORPS Pahlen III Neumark Dragoon Regt (Prussians) (4) (attached) 1st Hussar Division Pahlen III BRIGADE RUDIGER: Sumy Hussar Regt (5); Grodno Huss Regt (5) BRIGADE SCHUWANOW: Lubny Huss Regt (4); Olwiopol Huss Regt (2) Combined Uhlan Division Moller SAKOMELSKY BRIGADE 32 THE ALLIES FORCES LISSANEWISCH: Tschugujew Uhlan Regt (6); Serpuchow Uhlan Regt (4) (detached for police duties) Brigade Knorrig: Eupatoric Tartar Horse Regt (1); Tartar Uhlan Regt (4) Division lllowaiski Rodiorow II Don Cossack Regt (2); jaroslawsk Coss Regt (2); Grekow VIII Coss Regt (3); lllowaiski Coss Regt (4) Corps Artillery Niktin Horse Battery No. 6 (8); Horse Battery No. 7(12) COMBINED CAVALRY CORPS TOTAL 27 squadrons. 11 Cossack squadrons 4.136 men, 20 guns. CORPS WITTGENSTEIN I INFANTRY CORPS Gortschakow 5th Infantry Division Mesenzow BRIGADE LUKOW: Perm Inf Regt (2); Sewsk Inf Regt (1) Brigade Wlastow: Kaluga Inf Regt (2); Mogilew Inf Regt (2); Brigade ?: Bn of Grand Princess Catharina; Jäger Regt No. 23 (2); Jäger Regt No. 24 (2) 14th Infantry Division Helffreich BRIGADE LJALLIN: Tenginsk Inf Regt (2); Estonian Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE ROTH: Tulsk Inf Regt (2); Nowoginsk Inf Regt (2) Brigade Wusrow: Jäger Regt No. 25 (2): Jäger Regt No. 26 (2); Battery No. 3(12); Light Battery No. 6(12); Light Battery No. 7(12) II INFANTRY CORPS Duke Eugene of Württemberg 3rd Infantry Division Prince Schahowskoj BRIGADE SCHALRNSKY: Murom Inf Regt (2); Deval Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE ?: Tschernigow Inf Regt (2); Selenginsk Inf Regt (1) Brigade ?: Jäger Regt No. 20 (2); Jäger Regt No 21 (1) 4th Infantry Division Puschnitzky BRIGADE ?: Tobolsk Inf Regt (1); Volhynia Inf Regt (2) Brigade ?: Krementschuk Inf Regt (2); Minsk Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE WALKOW: Jäger Regt No. 4 (2); Jäger Regt No 34 (1); Battery No. 5 (12); Light Battery No. 27 (12) GUARD DUTIES STAFF AND TRAIN Dragoon Regt Ingermanland (2); 2nd Bug Cossack Regt (2?); Coss Regt Zolotaref (1); Militia Bns Olonetz and Wologda (2). ARMY CORPS WITTGENSTEIN TOTAL: 45 battalions, 29 squadrons, 13 Cossack squadrons 20,067 men, 80 guns. PRUSSO-RUSSIAN RESERVE CORPS Grand Prince Constantine Grenadier (III Infantry) CORPS RAJEWSKI 1st Grenadier Division TSCHOGLOKOW BRIGADE KNIASAM (?): Araktschejew Grenadier Regt (2); Ekaterinoslaw Grenadier Regt (2) BRIGADE ACHT: Taurien Gren Regt (2); St. Petersburg Gren Regt (2) BRIGADE HMELIANOW: Keksholm Gren Regt (2); Pernau Gren Regt (2) 2nd Grenadier Division Sulima BRIGADE LEWIN: Kiev Grenadier Regt (2); Moscow Gren Regt (2) BRIGADE DE DAMAS: Astrachan Gren Regt (2); Fanagoria Gren Regt (2) BRIGADE HESSE: Siberian Gren Regt (2); Little Russian Gren Regt (2); Battery No.33 (12); Battery No. 14 (12); Light Battery No. 13 (12) GUARD (5TH INFANTRY) CORPS Jermolow 1st Guard Infantry Division Rosen BRIGADE PRINCE POTEMKIN: Preobraschensk Guard Grenadier Regt (3), Sejmenow Guard Gren Regt (3) BRIGADE BISTROM: Ismailow Guard Gren Regt (2); Life Guard Jäger Regt (2) 2nd Guard Infantry Division Udom BRIGADE SCHELTUCHIN: Lithuanian Guard Grenadier Regt (3); Life Gren Guard Regt (3) BRIGADE KRISCHANOFFSKY: Tsar Paul Guard Gren Regt (2); Guard Jäger Regt (3) RESERVE CAVALRY Prince Gallitzin V 1st Cuirassier Division Preradowitsch BRIGADE ARSENIUS: Chevalier Guard Regt (6); Horse Guard Regt (6) BRIGADE PRINCE KOBURG: Tsar's Life Cuirassier Regt (4); Tsarina's Life Cuir Regt (4) 2nd Cuirassier Division Kretow BRIGADE KARATEJOW: Ekaterinoslaw Cuirassier Regt (4); Astrachan Cuir Regt (4) BRIGADE LEONTEW: Glukow Cuir Regt (5); Pskow Cuir Regt (5) 3rd Cuirassier Division Duka BRIGADE GUDOWITSCH: Military Order Cuirassier Regt (4); Little Russian Cuir Regt (4) BRIGADE LEWATSCHOW: Starodub Cui' Regt (4); Nowgorod Cuir Regt (4) Guard Light Cavalry Division Schaewitsch BRIGADE TSCHAKUKOW: Life Guard Dragoon Regt (6); Life Guard Hussar Regt (6); Life Guard Uhlan Regt (6); Life Guard Cossack Regt (4); Guard Horse Battery No. 1 (8); Guard Horse Battery No. 2 (8) PRUSSIAN GUARDS BRIGADE ALVENSLEBEN (attached to Russian Guard Infantry): 1st Foot Guard Regt (3); 2nd Foot Guard Regt (3); Guard Jäger Bn (1/2); Guard 6pdr Foot Battery (8) BRIGADE WERDER (attached to Reserve Cavalry Corps): Regt Guard du Corps (5); Combined Guard Light Cav Regt (6); Guard Horse Battery (8). Prusso-Russian Reserve CORPS TOTAL; 51 1/2 BATTALIONS, 87 squadrons, 15 Cossack squadrons 35,718 men, 104 guns. COSSACK CORPS Platow (under Prince Kudascheff) Don Cossack Regt Grekow V (3); Don Coss Regt Kostine (3); 1st Teptjaer Coss Regt (2?); Don Coss Regt Tschikilew 1 (3?); Don Coss Regt Tschernobusow V(4?) (under Colonel von Bergmann) Don Cossack Regt Schaltanowka (5?); Don Coss Regt Elmurusin (5?); 1st Black Sea Coss Regt (5) (under Prince Schtscherbatow) 3rd Orenburg Cossack Regt (2); 3rd Urals Coss Regt (3); 2nd Teptjaer Coss Regt (3); Don Horse Battery No. 1 (10); attached: Don Coss Regt Grekow XXI (3?); Don Coss Regt Wlassow X (4?); Don Coss Regt Platow V (3). COSSACK CORPS TOTAL: 47 squadrons 4,541 men. 10 guns. RUSSIAN RESERVE ARTILLERY Hune Guard Battery No. I (12); Battery No. I (12); Battery No. 14 (12): Battery No. 29 (12); Battery No. 36 (12); Horse Battery No. 3 (12); Horse Battery No. 23 (12); Horse Battery No. I (2); Horse Battery No. 10 (6); 3 coys engineers. Total: 339 engineers, 94 guns.
II ARMY CORPS Kleist (Prussians) 9TH BRIGADE KLUX: Silesian Schutzen Bn (1/2): 1st West Prussian Inf Regt (3); 6th Reserve Inf Regt (3); 7th Silesian Militia (2): 1st Silesian Mil Cavalry (1); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 7 (8); Horse Battery No. 10 (8) 10TH BRIGADE Pirch I: 2nd West Prussian Inf Regt (3); 7th Reserve Inf Regt (2): 9th Silesian Mil (2); 1st Silesian Mil Cavalry (1); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 14 (8) 11TH BRIGADE ZIETHEN: Silesian Schutzen Bn (1/2): 1st Silesian Inf Regt (3): 10th Res Inf Regt (2). 8th Silesian Mil (2): 1st Silesian Hussar Regt (2 1/2); 2nd Silesian Mil Cavalry (1): 6pdr Foot Battery No. 9 (8)34
12TH BRIGADE Prince August Ferdinand of Prussia: 2nd Silesian Inf Regt (3); 11th Res Inf Regt (2); 10th Silesian Mil (2); Silesian Uhlan Regt (4 1/2); 1st Silesian Hussar Regt (2); 2nd Silesian Mil Cavalry (1); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 13 (8) Reserve Cavalry RODER BRIGADE WRANGEL East Prussian Cuirassier Regt (4 1/2); Brandenburg Cuir Regt (4 1/2); Silesian Cuir Regt (4 1/4); BRIGADE MUTIUS: 1st Silesian Mil Cav Regt (2); 7th Silesian Mil Cav Regt (2); 8th Silesian Mil Cav Regt (2); Horse Battery No. 7 (8): Horse Battery No. 8 (8) Reserve Artillery Braun 12pdr Battery No. 3 (8); 12pdr Battery No. 6 (8): 6pdr Foot Battery No. 9 (8); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 14 (8); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 21 (8); Horse Battery No. 9 (8); 7pdr Howitzer Battery No. 1 (8). PRUSSO-RUSSIAN ARMY TOTAL: 129 1/2 battalions, 156 squadrons. 83 Cossack squadrons 75,122 men, 402 guns. ARMY OF THE NORTH Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden. CORPS WINTZINGERODE (Russians) Vanguard Woroncow Pawlograd Hussar Regt (6); Volynia Uhlan Regt (3), Djatschln Cossacks (?); Horse Battery No. II (12) COSSACK BRIGADE MELNIKOW IV: Cossacks Melnikow IV (?) Coss Melnikow V (?) Coss BRIGADE STAAL: COSS Andrejanow II (?); 1st Bashkir Regt (?) Cossack Brigade Prendell: 1st Bug Regt (?): 3rd Urals Regt (?) INFANTRY BRIGADE KNIPER: 13th Jäger Regt (2); 14th Jäger Regt (2): 2nd Jäger Regt (1) CAVALRY BRIGADE MANTEUFFEL: St. Petersburg Dragoon Regt (4); Elisawetgrad Hussar Regt (6); Yachontow's Volunteers (2); Horse Battery No. 4 (8) CAVALRY BRIGADE MAGNUS VON DERPAHLEN: Riga Dragoon Regt (3): Finland Hussar Regt (2); Izium Huss Regt (4); Horse Batteries Nos. 1 & 5 (6) CAVALRY BRIGADE ZAGRJZSKII: Nezin Chasseur Regt (2): Poland Uhlan Regt (6) COSSACK BRIGADE ILOWAISKII IV: Coss Ilowaiskii IV (?); Coss Gregow IX (?); Coss Barabanscikow II (?); Coss Loscilin I (?) 21st Infantry Division Laptew Newa Inf Regt (1); Petrowsk Inf Regt (1); Lithuanian Inf Regt (1); Podolian Inf Regt (1); 44th Jäger Regt (2); Light Battery No. 42 (12); Heavy Battery No. 31 (12) 24th Infantry Division Sirwan Inf Regt (2); Butyrki Inf Regt (2); Ufa Inf Regt (2); Tomsk Inf Regt (1): 19th Jäger Regt (2); 40th Jäger Regt (1); Light Battery No. 46 (12) Provisional Division Harpe Tula Inf Regt (2); Nawaginsk Inf Regt (2); Combined Grenadiers (3); Combined Heavy Batteries Nos. 21 & 26 (12): Horse Battery No. 13 (12). CORPS WINTZINGERODE TOTAL: 28 battalions, 38 squadrons, 11 Cossack Regiments 24.739 men, 86 guns III CORPS Bülow (Prussians) 3rd Division Prince of Hessen-Homburg 2nd East Prussian Grenadier Bn (1); 3rd East Prussian Inf Regt (3): 4th Reserve Inf Regt (3); 3rd East Prussian Militia Inf Regt (3); 1st Life Hussar Regt (4); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 5 (8); East Prussian Jäger Bn (1/2)(detached from 4th Division) 5th Division Borstell Pomeranian Grenadier Bn (1); 1st Pomeranian Inf Regt (3): 2nd Reserve Inf Regt (3); 2nd Kurmark Militia Inf Regt (4); Pomeranian Hussar Regt (4); West Prussian Uhlan Regt (4): 6pdr Foot Battery No. 10 (8) 6th Division Krafft Colberg Inf Regt (3): 9th Reserve Inf Regt (3); 1st Neumark Militia Inf Regt (3); Pomeranian National Cavalry Regt (3); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 16 (8) Reserve Cavalry Oppen BRIGADE TRESKOW: Queen's Dragoon Regt (4); Brandenburg Drag Regt (4); 2nd West Prussian Drag Regt (4) BRIGADE SYDOW: 2nd Kurmark Militia Cavalry Regt (4); 4th Kurmark Mil Cav Regt (4); 2nd Pomeranian Mil Cav Regt (1); Horse Battery No. 5 (8); Horse Battery No. 6 (8). Reserve Artillery: 12pdr Battery No. 4 (8); 12pdr Battery No. 5 (8): 6pdr Foot Battery No. 19 (8); Horse Battery No. 11 (8) RUSSIANS ATTACHED TOBülow'S CORPS: Heavy Batteries Nos.7 & 21 (22); Don Cossack Regt Bychalow II (?); Don Coss Regt Ilowaiskii V (?); Engineer Coys Nos.4 & 5. III CORPS (PRUSSIAN) TOTAL: 30 battalions, 36 squadrons. 2 Cossack Regiments 22,684 men, 74 guns. SWEDISH CORPS Stedingk 1st Division Posse 1ST BRIGADE SCHULTZENHEIM: Svea Life Guard Regt (1): 2nd Ufe Guard Regt (1): Grenadiers of the Life Guards (1); Life Gren Regt (2);Queen's Regt (1) 2nd BRIGADE LCONHARD VON REUTERSKIOLD: Upland Regt (2); Sbdermanland Regt (2); Nord-Schonen Regt (1); Pomeranian Foot Legion. Cavalry: Mounted Life Guard Dragoon Regt (5); Pomeranian Mounted Legion (1). Artillery: Gotha Artillery Division Edenhjelm, 2 6pdr batteries (14) 2nd Division Sandels 3RD BRIGADE BRANDSTROM: Westgoiha Regt (2); Westmanland Regt (2); Nerike Regt (2) 4th BRIGADE CASIMIR VON REUTERSKIOLD: Skaraborg Regt (2) Elfsborg Regt (2); Field Jäger Regt Wermland (1) 6TH BRIGADE BOIJE: Kronoborg Regt (2); Calmar Regt (2) Artillery Division Geist 2 6pdr batteries (14) Cavalry Division Skjoldebrand Cuirassiers from Brigade of Ufe Regiments (4); Smaland Dragoon Regt (6); Schonen Hussar Regt (6); Morner Huss Regt (5); Horse Battery (6). Reserve Artillery: 12pdr battery (8); 6pdr battery (6); rocket battery (British) (32); Don Cossack Regt Rebreew (?). SWEDISH CORPS TOTAL : 25 battalions, 27 squadrons, 1 Cossack Regiment 17,014 men, 46 guns, 32 rockets. Army OF THE NORTH TOTAL: 48,941 Infantry. 11,665 cavalry, 5,087 Cossacks, 226 guns.35
ORDER OF BATTLE: ALLIED ARMY, OCTOBER 1813 continued ARMY OF SILESIA Blücher I CORPS Yorck(Prussian) Vanguard Katzeler Life Grenadier Bn (1); West Prussian Gren Bn (1); East Prussian Jäger Bn (1/2); 2nd East Prussian Fusilier Bn (1): Guard Jäger (1/2): Brandenburg Inf Regt (1); 12th Reserve Inf Regt (1); 13th Silesian Militia Inf Regt (1): 14th Silesian Mil Inf Regt (1): 15th Silesian Mil Inf Regt (1); 2nd Life Hussar Regt (2); Brandenburg Huss Regt (2); Brandenburg Uhlan Regt (4); East Prussian National Cav Regt (4): 5th Silesian Mil Cav Regt (4); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 12 (8); Horse Battery No. 2 (2) 1ST BRIGADE STEINMETZ 1st East Prussian Grenadier Bn (1); Silesian Gren Bn (1); 5th Silesian Mil Inf Regt (3); 13th Silesian Mil Inf Regt (3); 2nd Life Hussar Regt (3); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 2 (8) 2ND BRIGADE PRINCE CHARLES OF MECKLENBURG 1st East Prussian Inf Regt (3); 2nd East Prussian Inf Regt (1); 6th Silesian Militia Inf Regt (1); Mecklenburg Hussar Regt (4); 6pdr Foot Battery No. I (8) 7TH BRIGADE HORN Life Inf Regt (3); Thuringian Inf Bn (1); 4th Silesian Militia Inf Regt (3); 15th Silesian Mil Inf Regt (2); 3rd Silesian Mil Cav Regt (2); 10th Silesian Mil Cav Regt (2); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 3 (8) 8TH BRIGADE Hünerbein Brandenburg Inf Regt (2); 12th Reserve Inf Regt (2); 4th Silesian Mil Inf Regt (2); Brandenburg Hussar Regt (2); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 15 (8) Reserve Cavalry Jürgass Lithuanian Dragoon Regt (4); 1st West Prussian Drag Regt (4): 1st Neumark Mil Cav Regt (4); Horse Battery No. 1 (8); Horse Battery No. 2 (8) Reserve Artillery 12pdr Battery No. 1 (8); 12pdr Battery No. 2 (8); 6pdr Foot Battery No. 24 (8); 3pdr Battery No. 1 (8); Horse Battery No. 12 (8). I CORPS (PRUSSIAN) TOTAL: 32 3/4 narrations, 42 squadrons 19,546 men, 104 guns. CORPS SACKEN (Russians) BRIGADE USCHAKOW: Smolensk Dragoon Regt (2); Courland Drag Regt (5) (detached from 3rd Drag Division) 2nd Hussar Division Lanskoi Alexandria Hussar Regt (5); Mariupol Huss Regt (6); White Russian Huss Regt (4); Achtyrka Huss Regt (6) Cossacks: 4th Ukranian Regt (3): St Petersburg Coss (4); Don Coss Regts Karpow II: Lukowkin II; Grekow; Kuteinikow IV; Semencikow IV; llowaiskii IX; 2nd Bashkir Regt; 2nd Kalmuk Regt 1Oth Infantry Division Lieven III BRIGADE ?: Yaroslaw Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE SASS; Crimean Inf Regt (1); Bialostok Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE ACHLESTYSCHEW: 8th Jäger Regt (2); 39th Jäger Regt (1); BRIGADE RACHMANOW: Ochotsk Inf Regt (1); Kamtschatka Inf Regt (1) (from 16th Infantry Division Repninskoi) 27th Infantry Division Newjerowski BRIGADE STAWITZKI: Odessa Inf Regt (1); Vilna Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE ALEKSEJEW: Tarnopol Inf Regt (1); Simbirsk Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE KOLOGRIWOW: 49th Jäger Regt (2); 50th Jäger Regt (1) Artillery: Horse Battery No. 18(12); Heavy Battery No. 10(12); Heavy Battery No. 13 (12); Light Battery No. 24 (12); Light Battery No. 35 (12); 1 coy engineers. CORPS SACKEN TOTAL: 17 battalions, 28 squadrons, 10 Cossack Regiments 12,726 men, 60 guns. RUSSIAN CORPS Langeron Vanguard Rudzewitsch Kargopol Dragoon Regt (4); Kiev Drag Regt (4); Kinburn Drag Regt (2); Dorpat Chasseur Regt (2) Livonian Chass Regt (2); 1st Ukraine Coss Regt (3); 3rd Ukraine Coss Regt (3); Don Coss Regt Kuteinikow VIII; Don Coss Regt Seliwanow II 9th Infantry Division Udom II BRIGADE POLTARATZKI: Nascheburg Inf Regt (1); Apscheronskoi Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE JUSCHKOW n: Rjaschsk Inf Regt (2); Yatutsk Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE GRIMBLADT: 10th Jäger Regt (1); 38th Jäger Regt (1). Artillery: Heavy Battery No. 15 (12); Horse Battery No. 8(12) Main Body Cavalry: Sjewerskoi Chasseur Regt (2); Arzamas Chass Regt (2) IX INFANTRY CORPS Olsufjew 15th Division Kornilow BRIGADE TERN: Vitebsk Inf Regt (1); Kozelsk Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE ANENSUR: Kura Inf Regt (2); Kolywan Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE TICHANCWSKI I: 12th Jäger Regt (2); 22nd Jäger Regt (1) X INFANTRY CORPS Kapzewitsch 8th Division Urussow BRIGADE SCHENSCHIN: Archangel Inf Regt (2); Old Ingermanland Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE REHREN: Schlnsselburg Inf Regt (1); 7th Jäger Regt (2); 37th Jäger Regt (1) 22nd Division Turtschaninow 1 BRIGADE SCHKAPSKI: Wjatka Inf Regt (2); Starii-Oskol Inf Regt (2); Olonetz Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE DURNOW 29th Jäger Regt (2); 45th Jäger Regt (2). Artillery: Heavy Battery No. 2 (7); Heavy Battery No. 18 (12); Heavy Battery No. 34 (12); Heavy Battery No. 39 (12): Light Battery No. 3 (12); Light Battery No. 19 (12); Light Battery No. 29 (12); Don Cossack Battery No. 2 (7); 2 pontoon coys; 2 engineer coys ARMY CORPS ST. PRIEST Cavalry Borozdin: New Russian Dragoon Regt (4); Mitau Drag Regt (4); Karkov Drag Regt (4) VIII INFANTRY CORPS 11th Division Prince Gurjalow BRIGADE KARPENKO: Yeletz Inf Regt (I); Polotzk Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE TURGENJEW: Yekaterinburg Inf Regt (2); Rylsk Inf Regt (1) BRIGADE BISTRAM II: 1st Jäger Regt (1) 33rd Jäger Regt (2) 17th Division Pilar BRIGADE KERN: Rjasan Inf Regt (2); Bjelorsk Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE TSCHERTOW I: Brest Inf Regt (2): Wilmanstrand Inf Regt (2) BRIGADE CHARITANOW: 30th Jäger Regt (2); 48th Jäger Regt (2). Artillery: Heavy Battery No. 32(12); Light Battery No. 32(12); Light Battery No. 33(12). Cossacks: Don Cossack Regt Grekow XXI; Don Coss Regt Eschow II; Stavropol Kalmucks. RUSSIAN CORPS LANGERON TOTAL: 53 battalions, 38 squadrons, 5 Cossack Regiments 29,164 men. 146 guns. ARMY OF SILESIA TOTAL: 52,717 man, 310 guns.
Table 8. Summary of the forces involved in the Leipzig CampaignFrench Commander Army of Berlin Marshal Oudinot, later replaced by Marshal Ney Army of the Bober Marshal Macdonald Allied Commander Army of Bohemia Schwarzenberg (Austrian) Army of the North Crown Prince of Sweden (Swedish) Army of Silesia Blücher (Prussian)
Grossbeeren, Heavy rain made it difficult to fire muskets. The issue was often decided by the butt and bayonet; even so, this late 19th century painting by Röchling exaggerates a little and is typical of the romantic views held later in the 19th century. Nevertheless, Röchling's painting of the fight for the churchyard shows the uniforms and equipment of the time - virtually all the infantry wore covered shakos and greatcoats, leaving little to distinguish friend from foe, in this case, Saxons and Prussians.
The Battle of Dresden opens. This contemporary print gives a good indication of skirmish tactics of the period. The Russian infantry to the fore are skirmishing in pairs, one loading while the other gives covering fire. This line is supported by Cossacks. The French skirmishers, also operating in pairs, are clearly supported by a line of formed troops to their rear. The charge of the Saxon Cuirassier Regiment Jung-Zastrow on Austrian infantry at Dresden on 27 August. Austrian Jäger storming a fortification in the Moschinsky Gardens in Dresden on 26 August. The lack of scaling ladders which severely handicapped the Allied assault is very apparent in this coloured lithograph.
A rather romantic portrayal of French hussars at Dresden but nevertheless one of interest. Note the officer to the fore commanding his bugler to sound the charge. Painting by A. Lalauze. Napoleon on the Strehlen Heights during the Battle of Dresden, 27 August. A clear illustration of how Napoleon commanded on the field of battle. Selecting a good vantage point, his generals would visit him for instructions while his aides wailed to receive messages for forward ing. To the right of this painting by Friedrich Schneider, his Old Guard rest in the presence of then Emperor.
General von Yorck. Commander of I (Prussian) Corps. Described as being an awkward subordinate but a tough opponent who could be counted on to get stuck in when the going was tough. His corps was known as Blücher's 'Fighting Corps' and played a significant role in battles such as the Katzbach and Warienburg before being virtually destroyed at Möckern. The remnant marched to the Rhine, crossing in mid-winter at Kaub before continuing on to Paris.army was a pretty mixed lot, his infantry consisting of French, Italian and German conscripts and his cavalry of young, inexperienced troopers who were no match for the cavalry of the Army of Silesia.
Forces Involved. FRENCH: PRUSSIANS: A. Division Morand. E. Brigade Steinmetz. B. Division Franquemont. F. Brigade Mecklenburg. C. Brigade Beaumont. G. Brigade Horn. D. Division Fontanelli. H. Brigade Hünerbein.
1. Once Mecklenburg crosses the Elbe, Steinmetz moves up and ties down Morand frontally. 2. Mecklenburg forces Franquemont (B1) back and then out of Bleddin (B2). 3. Mecklenburg then continues his manoeuvre on the rear of the French position. 4. Beaumont tries to stop him but is thrown back. 5. Meanwhile, Horn storms the dykes, the lynchpin of the French position, which are held by Fontanelli (D2). 6. Hünerbein moves up in support. 7. Mecklenburg turns the French rear, forcing them to withdraw. 8. French withdraw
The Russian Guards at Priesten on 29 August, 1813. This was a delaying action fought the day before Kulm. The terrain is worth noting. The French were advancing down a narrow pass where a small force could hold them up. The valley side shown was very steep and that on the other side of the river in the centre of the picture was almost as steep. There would he no chance of escape to the sides, one could only move forwards or backwards. Now when Kleist's Prussians appeared at Vandamme's rear, the stage was set. The fighting on this day was to be a victory for the French. Contemporary lithograph.was made at Priesten (Prestanov), Vandamme's pursuit was checked and the remaining passes into Bohemia were kept free. If this could be done for another day, the Army of Bohemia would be able to escape the pursuit. In the meantime Kleist's Corps of Prussians had gone missing. He had found all the roads through the woods and hills of this part of Saxony blocked except the one which he knew Vandamme had used. Taking a great risk, he moved on Vandamme's rear.
Kulm, 30 August, 1813. With the battle raging in the centre background of this lithograph by F. Hofbauer, King Frederick William III of Prussia orders an Austrian dragoon regiment into the fray. The capture of General Vandamme at Kulm by Cossacks and Russian Jäger. His aide General Huxo (background) was also taken prisoner. The generals were in the middle of a column of retiring French infantry when a small group of Cossacks boldly rode up and plucked the two unfortunate commanders out. The infantry were so surprised by the Cossacks that they did not fire.
The capture of General Vandamme by Cossacks at Kulm, 30 August 1813. (By K.H. Rahl).Borstell arrived but the Allies could make no further head-way against Reynier. At about 3.30 p.m. Oudinot arrived in support. The French counter-attacked, recapturing Gohlsdorf and driving back Borstell. The situation was now critical for Bülow; his infantry was exhausted, his artillery unable to get the upper hand and his reinforcements still someway off. Ney saved him. An order arrived telling Oudinot to move his troops to Rohrbeek in support of Ney's right flank which was being pushed back. Oudinot carried out his orders despite Reynier's objections and pleas for support. Bülow attacked again, driving the Saxons back and recapturing Gohlsdorf. On the other flank Thümen and Hessen-Homburg were having some success against Bertrand, forcing him back to Rohrbeck. The Prussian advance came to a halt for lack of ammunition, but fresh Russian artillery broke Bertrand with salvoes of canister fire. Shortly alter 5 o'clock the Allies had won a victory on the French right.
Duke Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Commander of a brigade in Yorck's Corps, Duke Charles played a signifi- cant role at the Battle of Wartenburg. A man of great personal courage, he was severely wounded in the fighting at Möckern on 16 October. Drawing by Franz Kruger.
General Yorck doffs his cap to the II Battalion of the Prussian Life Regiment in recognition of their heroic role in the Battle of Wartenburg. Led by their brigade commander General von Horn, this battalion stormed the main French position, a natural fortress, with the bayonet and thereby decided the battle.
Wachau drawn shortly after the battle. This village formed an important point on the French defensive perimeter and was hotly contested during the battle. Murat at Liebertwolkwitz. This flamboyant French marshal came close to being taken prisoner twice during this cavalry battle. Lieutenant von der Lippe of the Prussian Neumark Dragoons had the honour of being the first to die trying! The charge Murat led at Eylau in 1807 did much to enhance his reputation. However, Liebertwolkwitz was not a repeat performance. He led good, experienced cavalry formations, but his tactical dispositions were poor and his inflexibility cost him the battle. The irony is that the lessons the French marshalate had taught their opponents by 1813 were the very lessons that Napoleon's generals had forgotten - namely tactical flexibility. Painting by W. Camphattsen. The Neumark Dragoons in action during the cavalry battles fought around Wachau on 14 October. This regiment played an important part in the flowing action of that day. Painting by C. Becker.
Prince of Schwarzenberg, commander of the Army of Bohemia. A good soldier who was in the unenviable position of having three monarchs present at his headquarters. What made his task even more difficult was the foreign policy of his government. Austria was not looking for a decisive victory in this campaign. Poor Schwarzenberg had not only to play the diplomat and politician but to do it all on a soldier's pay! Engraving by M. Steinla.Total Allied losses were 80-85 officers, 2,000-2,100 men and 600-650 horses. Details of French losses are unreliable but were probably greater. It is known that they lost two generals and 96 officers as well as 800 prisoners to the Austrians.
Connewitz drawn shortly after the battle of Leipzig. The village played an important role in the fighting on 16 October, being the site of a bridge over the Pleisse. Probstheida. This strategically important village was defended by Victor on 16 October. Situated on the lower slopes of a mound at a major road junction, possession of this village determined mho was master of the southern entrance to Leipzig itself. The storming of the sheep farm at Auenhain on 16 October. This farm changed hands several times during the course of that day. Drawing by C.W. Strassberger.
Emperor Francis I of Austria. The geographical position of the Hapsburg Empire in the centre of Europe always meant that it had to fear several enemies- the Russians to the east, Turks to the south, Prussians to the north and French to the west. Never strong enough to 'go it alone', it was essential for every ruler of this Empire to have the right allies at the right time to ensure the balance of power in Europe. Despite several military defeats in the Napoleonic Wars, the Austrian Empire came out on the winning side and made sure that no one else gained too much power. In this respect, Francis I was highly successful.centre defeated and the bulk of his reserves committed to shore up his front. It was evident that the Allies still had uncommitted reserves and Napoleon saw little point in trying a further assault with the last of his.
Lindenau in 1813. This village was at the end of the causeway across marshy ground to the west of Leipzig. Its possession was essential to cover the French line of communications and, if need be, retreat. The Austrian Gyulai success- fully leased the French here and forced them to commit precious reserves when their use on the southern front might have brought victory. General Yorck sends in his cavalry reserve in one last desperate attempt to take Möckern. The struggle for this village was probably the most desperate, bitter and bloody of the entire campaign. Yorck's Corps was mauled here and remained 'hors de combat' for the remainder of the battle. His sacrifice relieved pressure on the southern front. Painting by Werner Schuh. The Brandenburg Hussars at Möckern. A rather dramatized impression of events that certainly were dramatic. Yorck's cavalry took 35 cannon, two Colours and 400 prisoners in their final charge at Möckern on 16 October. Painting by O. Gerlach.
An impression of Leipzig by Johann Adam Klein. This painting features a mixture of French, Prussian, Austrian and Russian troops, and would appear to represent fighting on the southern front. Albertina, Vienna.
1. Losnig. A village to the south of Leipzig. Held by Augereau on the morning of 18 October, it was eventually captured by Hessen-Homburg whose men suffered severely in the process. 2. Holzhausen. Held by Macdonald on the morning of 18 October, it fell to the Russians under Bennigsen. 3. Paunsdorf. It was at this village that the Saxon Army finally gave up fighting for the French Emperor. 4. Stötteritz. Once Paunsdorf had fallen to Bülow's Prussians, Stötteritz became the centre of the French defence on the southern front. 5. Zmeinaundorf Defended by Lauriston on 18 October, it was stormed and captured by Bennigsen's Russians.appearance of Bennigsen, Colloredo and the Crown Prince of Sweden. Napoleon had no hope whatsoever of a victory now. Retreat was the only sensible option. If he were to move his baggage train immediately, withdraw his troops through Leipzig and along the causeway through Lindenau, a rearguard deployed in Leipzig could hold up the Allies long enough for the manoeuvre to be accomplished. The rearguard itself could then withdraw and prevent any pursuit by blowing the bridge at Lindenau.
Bennigsen. The commander of a corps of Russians. This corps was the entirely fresh reserve formation which was committed on 18 October. Being the one and only significant reserve held by the Allies, the commiting of Bennigsen tipped the scales decisively in the favour of the Allies. Contemporary etching.
French soldiers gathering supplies at Paunsdorf during a lull in fighting at Leipzig. The great burden that this campaign placed on the economy and civilian population of Saxony should not he forgotten. Although Napoleon had his admirers in this part of Germany, the bulk of the population were simply very war weary and were wailing in hope for peace. Geissler. Sellerhausen. Ney's second line of defence once Paunsdorf had fallen. It was captured by Bülow's Prussians. Friccius leads his East Prussian militia battalion into Leipzig itself. This act broke the final French line of defence of the town on 10 October. The church in the background is St. Nicolas', focal point for the demonstrations of October 1989. Painting by Fritz Neumann.
French 6 pdr artillery piece. This particular gun was captured by Swedish forces during the Leipzig campaign and can he seen at the Armemuseum in Stockholm. (Photograph Armemuseum Stockholm).Barclay marched off at 8 o'clock and achieved his objectives without any great difficulties. Within cannon range of Probstheida, he halted and awaited the arrival of Bennigsen who had the farthest distance to cover. To his delight the French were withdrawing and offered little resistance. By 10 o'clock he was in position. Holzhausen and Zuckelhausen fell to determined assaults. Gerard was pushed off the Steinberg. Division Bubna moved on Paunsdorf which was strongly defended. At 2 p.m. the French still held Zweinaundorf, Mlkau and Paunsdorf. Bennigsen awaited the arrival of the Army of the North before committing himself to storming these villages.
Napoleon's flight from Leipzig. The final battle at the southern end of the Fleischerplatz. French prisoners-of-war are held around the baggage train of the Imperial Guard while the rearguard action continues not far away.
The bridge over the Elster. This bridge on the French line of retreat was blown up prematurely, cutting off part of the French rearguard. Some historians see this as a major blow to Napoleon. Had this bridge not been blown, he might have been able lo save more of his army. However, in any event, he was going to have in fall back across the Rhine so this final act in the battle was of little significance in that respect. The fact that there was only one road westwards out of Leipzig caused more difficulties and delays to the retreat than the loss of this bridge. Schwarzenberg brings news of victory to the titled monarchs. This would indeed seem a good time for him to come back to his headquarters.their retreat. The French could enter from four gates to the east but leave by only one in the west so a degree of military organization was necessary.
The wreckage of an army the day after battle. This scene at the Halle Cate, drawn by the eyewitness Geissler, clearly illustrates the aftermath of war - the stripped corpses, some of which appear still to be showing signs of life, the plundered wagons. Poniatowski attempting to swim the Elster. Perhaps Napoleon's greatest loss caused by the premature detonation of the Elster bridge. A number of generals managed to swim to safety. This unfortunate Pole did not and met a tragic death for such a noble figure. A scene from the Battle of Hanau. Here, the Bavarians, having recently changed sides, made a futile attempt at stopping the French retreat. Napoleon brushed his erstwhile allies aside before continuing the march home.
The memorial to the Battle of Leipzig built for the centennial. This is the point at which all tours of the Leipzig battlefield should start. This massive tower has no lifts so only the very fit will be able to make it to the top where there is a panoramic view of the entire battlefield. Concerts are held frequently in the hall inside the monument and the acoustics are excellent.
30 December 1812: Yorck, commander of the Prussian Auxiliary Corps in Russia, signs the Convention of Tauroggen ending de facto the Prussian alliance with the French. The Wars of Liberation are considered to have begun at this point. 1813 28 February: Prussia and Russia sign the Treaty of Kalisch. Alliance against France formed. 18 March: Hamburg occupied by Russians under Tettenborn. 27 March: Prussians and Russians occupy Dresden in Saxony. 2 April: Prussians and Russians defeat French at Luneburg, taking Morand and 2,000 men prisoner. 2 May: Battle of Lutzen or Gross-Gorschen. French victory. 18 May: Swedes under Bernadotte land in Pomerania. 20-21 May: Battle of Bautzen. French victory. 30 May: Hamburg reoccupied by French under Davout. 4-26 June: Armistice of Poischwitz. Later extended to 16 August. 15 June: Prussia and Russia sign subsidy treaty with Britain. 21 June: Wellington's victory at Vittoria. 27 June: Treaty of Reichenbach signed by Austria, Russia and Prussia. 21 July: Swedes join coalition. 12 August: Austria declares war on France. 16 August: Hostilities commence. 23 August: Battle of Grossbeeren. French defeated. 26-27 August: Battle of Dresden. Napoleon beats Schwarzenberg. 26 August: Battle on the Katzbach. Blücher beats Macdonald. 27 August: Battle of Hagelberg. French defeated. 29-30 August: Battles of Kulm and Nollendorf. French defeated. 6 September: Battle of Dennewitz. French under Ney defeated. 3 October: Battle of Wartenburg. Yorck's Prussians defeat French under Marmont. 8 October: Bavaria leaves Confederation of Rhine and joins Allies. 14 October: Cavalry battle at Liebertwolkwitz. 16-19 October: BATTLE OF LEIPZIG. Napoleon defeated. French withdraw from Germany. 30-31 October: Battle of Hanau. Attempt by Bavarians to halt French retreat unsuccessful.